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What is FaceIt®Local Feature Analysis
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50 ways to use face recognition

CASINO I-CUBE Face Recognition Solution (PDF - 1.5 MB)

STADIUM I-Cube Face Recognition Solution (PDF 2.3 MB)

MINING I-Cube Face Recognition Solution (PDF 8 MB)

Selling biometrics to the retail sector (By BTT). (PDF 200KB)

I-Cube Face Recognition System design and costing

I-Cube - Recognition VS Identity - the role of Biometrics (by BTT). (PDF 400 KB)

Face Recognition user manual

Economist comments on Face Recognition

Biometric Concepts (PDF)


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The accuracy of biometric technologies is affected by multiple factors. In the case of facial recognition, these are extensive: covering a wide range of environmental conditions (lighting, shadows, temporal affects {aging}, hair style, glasses and hats, background composition and lighting, etc.), size of and quality of the enrollment image, subject participation and the sensitivity or threshold level.  

Due to the accuracy problems the I-Cube face recognition system is a manual system, where the operator makes the final decision.  The I-Cube face recognition system is used to assist the operator, by having the images digitized, by presenting the top % of the recognition matches for the operator to select from.  

The enrollment image is the original image the system is trying to match. High quality enrollment images deliver better match results. In law enforcement, for example, images can vary dramatically. A digital photo taken at the time of booking is of significantly better quality than a still photograph taken covertly. Despite this, FaceIt® technology is capable of handling lower quality images, with a minimum resolution of 25 pixels between the eyes.

Subject participation
In access control or transaction scenarios in which someone is attempting to verify his/her identity, there is a much higher degree of subject participation and therefore a better chance of obtaining a high-quality image to search against. In surveillance, however, behavior cannot be controlled, hence, facial images may be partially hidden or distorted, affecting the resulting accuracy.

The threshold is a score set by the user which determines at which point the system will designate a match. A lower security system will have a lower threshold (allowing more false matches), as opposed to a high threshold (that will result in more false non-matches). The threshold is a trade-off that a user makes depending on the environment.

[In a surveillance system, a higher threshold will lower the false alarm rate. Conversely, lowering the threshold will result in more alarms overall. The user designates the threshold based on the number of alarms they are equipped to deal with. For example, in an airport, the threshold may be higher than in a shopping mall.]

Design for existing cameras & digital recorder, laptop, R99 465.00       ON SPECIAL I-Cube.   All rights reserved.  Revised: February 18, 2008 .



Travellers fear biometrics

The US Travel Industry Association's most recent travel trade barometer shows fewer people from the UK and Germany visited the US during 2006.

The barometer reported year-end bookings and travel demand 1% to 3% below 2005 levels for visitors from the UK to the US, with the outlook for the 2007 winter and spring seasons projected to remain flat as well. Booking rates from German visitors were also flat during 2006.

According to the barometer, the top deterrent for travel to the US is the implementation of the biometric passport. Biometric passports incorporate electronic fingerprints and images onto a digital chip that make them more difficult to counterfeit.

Biometrics stoke concerns about racial profiling'

The British Joint Committee on Human Rights (JCHR) has expressed concern at government plans to require all non-EU nationals in the UK to have a biometric immigration document proving their status. The document constitutes the first phase of the government's roll-out of its ID card scheme.

While individuals will not have to carry it at all times, they will be required to present it if asked to do so by police or immigration authorities. But the JCHR has said only "very careful scrutiny" will prevent racial or ethnic profiling under the scheme.

"The fact that such a document exists for non-nationals and can be requested to prove entitlement to services makes it highly likely in our view that members of black and minority ethnic communities in the UK will be disproportionately required to prove their immigration status," it said.

Rising data volumes create need for RFID

The European radio frequency identification (RFID) market is set to achieve significant progress, given its past and existing initiatives in retail, healthcare, manufacturing, logistics and anti-counterfeiting measures as well as the increasing investments in this space.

While this market has not demonstrated growth to the same extent as the RFID market in the US, it is nevertheless poised for growth, a new analysis from Frost & Sullivan says. The company adds the European RFID middleware market earned revenue of $41 million in 2006 and estimates this to reach $181.8 million in 2013.

Analysts say there is a strong case for RFID in places where the unit cost is high and also in places where inventory loss is widespread. Likely growth segments for RFID middleware will be in the areas of drug manufacturing and tracking, medical equipment tracking in hospitals and asset tracking.

New smart card could decrease fraud

A new smart banking card, using a microchip instead of a magnetic strip to store the client‘s details, should reduce card banking fraud by about 75%, banks say.

This response comes after at least seven Port Elizabeth residents fell victim to card fraud called skimming, where syndicates attach a card reader to an ATM, then use the information obtained from the device to clone the bank card. These cards are then used to withdraw funds from the account and perform debit card transactions at various businesses.

Walter Volker, GM of Absa‘s group management systems, said Absa had already begun rolling out the smart card technology in March. “We began experimenting with the technology seven years ago and have been field-testing the cards since 2003. First our back-end systems were upgraded, then the various network protocols were put in place, then our branches and about 99% of all our ATMs and point of sale devices have been upgraded to read the chips, before we began issuing the cards,” he said.

Political backlash sinks smart card project

Opposition by state governments has forced the Indian government to abort a plan to use smart cards in the distribution of kerosene through ration shops.

The ministry of petroleum and natural gas planned to issue smart cards to families living below the poverty line in three districts across three states as part of a pilot project that was to have started on 1 January.

Had the project taken off, ration shops in these districts would have received just enough kerosene to supply to the families; other buyers would have had to pay market rates for the fuel.


FNB fights phishing
[ Johannesburg, 10 May 2007 ] - All countries with sophisticated financial sectors and electronic payment mechanisms such as Internet banking in place, are experiencing a dramatic rise in phishing attacks.

This is according to Chris Kotze, FNB Online CEO, who says SA is no different and, around the globe, identity theft in the form of phishing has more than doubled when compared to a year ago.

FNB, in particular, has been the victim of persistent and relentless attacks in recent weeks, although Kotze says it is difficult to compare the extent to which FNB clients have been targets of phishing attacks to that of the other South African banks, as this information is not available in the public domain.

However, he says FNB does have information that indicates similar attacks against the other large South African banks.

According to the bank, some of its clients were defrauded, but said FNB has a 100% refund policy under these circumstances.

Kotze says FNB's security measures are not inferior to those of the other service providers and the bank was the first local bank to introduce a ‘one-time password' in the form of a DigiTag.

He also says FNB was the first local bank to introduce the free ‘in-contact' service that alerts clients of all the activity on their accounts, enabling clients to immediately report suspicious transactions.

“Certain rules are applied to all online banking transactions to interrogate and block potentially fraudulent transactions,” he says. This is dubbed the SmartBlock solution.

To ensure its clients are not subjected to too many changes, Kotze says FNB recently embarked on a significant online banking platform migration. The bank decided to overlap the platform change with the launch of a new security module, a mandatory ‘one-time PIN' via cellphone text message.

Unfortunately, he says, the migration caused FNB to lag behind the other South African banks by a couple of months, with the introduction of a mandatory ‘one-time password' via SMS. Kotze says this, combined with the uncertainty created by the change-over to the new platform, resulted in a perceived phishing attack focus on the FNB online users.

He says all FNB Online clients now have mandatory second-level authentication in place, such as DigiTag, one-time PIN via SMS or digital certificate, which, combined with in-contact and SmartBlock, negates the effective impact of phishing attacks.

“We are well advanced with further security measures to proactively block the next wave of potential online fraud attacks,” he concludes.




I-Cube.   All rights reserved.  Revised: February 18, 2008 .